Smart phones were not popular a few decades ago. When it came to the use of mobile phones, their primary function was the receiving and making of phone calls. You would be surprised to know that, the internet was not accessible on many types of phones available on the market.
However things have drastically changed and it is clear that about 80% of phones sold on the market are able to surf the internet. Interestingly, we use our phones to play both downloadable games and internet games. Smart phones are basically economical these day, and the average person usually possesses a personal phone.
We can admit that take of selfies are now popular. Phones without good camera pixels are hard to sell, but phones with high resolution and display properties are easier to sell on the market. Before deciding to buy your next phone you can dive deep into some understand certain concepts.
A mobile phone is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the switching systems of a mobile phone operator, which provides access to the public switched telephone network (PSTN). Modern mobile telephone services use a cellular network architecture, and, therefore, mobile telephones are often also called cellular telephones or cell phones. In addition to telephony, 2000s-era mobile phones support a variety of other services, such as text messaging, MMS, email, Internet access, short-range wireless communications (infrared, Bluetooth), business applications, gaming, and digital photography. Mobile phones which offer these and more general computing capabilities are referred to as smartphones.
The first handheld mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing c. 2 kilograms (4.4 lbs). In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first commercially available handheld mobile phone. From 1983 to 2014, worldwide mobile phone subscriptions grew to over seven billion, penetrating 100% of the global population and reaching even the bottom of the economic pyramid. In first quarter of 2016, the top smartphone manufacturers were Samsung, Apple, and Huawei (and “[s]martphone sales represented 78 percent of total mobile phone sales”).
Smartphones have a number of distinguishing features. The International Telecommunication Union measures those with Internet connection, which it calls Active Mobile-Broadband subscriptions (which includes tablets, etc.). In the developed world, smartphones have now overtaken the usage of earlier mobile systems. However, in the developing world, they account for around 50% of mobile telephony.
Feature phone is a term typically used as a retronym to describe mobile phones which are limited in capabilities in contrast to a modern smartphone. Feature phones typically provide voice calling and text messaging functionality, in addition to basic multimedia and Internet capabilities, and other services offered by the user’s wireless service provider. A feature phone has additional functions over and above a basic mobile phone which is only capable of voice calling and text messaging. Feature phones and basic mobile phones tend to use a proprietary, custom-designed software and user interface. By contrast, smartphones generally use a mobile operating system that often shares common traits across devices.
- Kosher phone
There are Jewish orthodox religious restrictions which, by some interpretations, standard mobile telephones overstep. To deal with this problem, some rabbinical organizations have recommended that phones with text-messaging capability not be used by children. Phones with restricted features are known as kosher phones and have rabbinical approval for use in Israel and elsewhere by observant Orthodox Jews. Although these phones are intended to prevent immodesty, some vendors report good sales to adults who prefer the simplicity of the devices. Some phones are approved for use by essential workers (such as health, security, and public service workers) on the sabbath, even though the use of any electrical device is generally prohibited during this time.
The common components found on all phones are:
- A battery, providing the power source for the phone functions.
- An input mechanism to allow the user to interact with the phone. These are a keypad for feature phones and touch screens for most smartphones.
- A screen which echoes the user’s typing displays text messages, contacts, and more.
- Basic mobile phone services to allow users to make calls and send text messages.
- All GSM phones use a SIM card to allow an account to be swapped among devices. Some CDMA devices also have a similar card called an R-UIM.
- Individual GSM, WCDMA, iDEN and some satellite phone devices are uniquely identified by an International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number.
Low-end mobile phones are often referred to as feature phones and offer basic telephony. Handsets with more advanced computing ability through the use of native software applications are known as smartphones.
In sound, smartphones and feature phones vary little. Some audio-quality enhancing features, such as Voice over LTE and HD Voice, have appeared and are often available on newer smartphones. Sound quality can remain a problem due to the design of the phone, the quality of the cellular network and compression algorithms used in long distance calls. Audio quality can be improved using a VoIP application over WiFi. Cellphones have small speakers so that the user can use a speakerphone feature and talk to a person on the phone without holding it to their ear. The small speakers can also be used to listen to digital audio files of music or speech or watch videos with an audio component, without holding the phone close to the ear.
GSM feature phones require a small microchip called a Subscriber Identity Module or SIM card, in order to function. The SIM card is approximately the size of a small postage stamp and is usually placed underneath the battery in the rear of the unit. The SIM securely stores the service-subscriber key (IMSI) and the Ki used to identify and authenticate the user of the mobile phone. The SIM card allows users to change phones by simply removing the SIM card from one mobile phone and inserting it into another mobile phone or broadband telephony device, provided that this is not prevented by a SIM lock. The first SIM card was made in 1991 by Munich smart card maker Giesecke & Devrient for the Finnish wireless network operator Radiolinja.
A hybrid mobile phone can hold up to four SIM cards. SIM and R-UIM cards may be mixed together to allow both GSM and CDMA networks to be accessed. From 2010 onwards, such phones became popular in emerging markets, and this was attributed to the desire to obtain the lowest on-net calling rate.
Mobile phones communicate with cell towers that are placed to give coverage across a telephone service area which is divided up into ‘cells’. Each cell uses a different set of frequencies from neighbouring cells, and will typically be covered by 3 towers placed at different locations. The cell towers are usually interconnected to each other and the phone network and the internet by wired connections. Due to bandwidth limitations each cell will have a maximum number of cell phones it can handle at once. The cells are therefore sized depending on the expected usage density, and may be much smaller in cities. In that case much lower transmitter powers are used to avoid broadcasting beyond the cell.
As a phone moves around, a phone will “hand off”- automatically disconnect and reconnect to the tower that gives the best reception.
Additionally, short-range Wi-Fi infrastructure is often used by smartphones as much as possible as it offloads traffic from cell networks on to local area networks.
A common data application on mobile phones is Short Message Service (SMS) text messaging. The first SMS message was sent from a computer to a mobile phone in 1992 in the UK while the first person-to-person SMS from phone to phone was sent in Finland in 1993. The first mobile news service, delivered via SMS, was launched in Finland in 2000, and subsequently many organizations provided “on-demand” and “instant” news services by SMS. Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) was introduced in 2001.
5G is a technology and term used in research papers and projects to denote the next major phase in mobile telecommunication standards beyond the 4G/IMT-Advanced standards. The term 5G is not officially used in any specification or official document yet made public by telecommunication companies or standardization bodies such as 3GPP, WiMAX Forum or ITU-R. New standards beyond 4G are currently being developed by standardization bodies, but they are at this time seen as under the 4G umbrella, not for a new mobile generation.
Cases, which are designed to attach to, support, or otherwise hold a mobile phone, are popular accessories for many phones, particularly mainstream smartphones. Case measures are based on the display inches (e.g. 5 inch display). There are different types:
- Pouches and sleeves
- Safety Straps
- Flip cases and wallets
- Screen protection and body films
- Drop and shock protection
- Leather Case
Holsters are commonly used alone for devices that include rubberized padding, and/or are made of plastic and without exposed rigid corners. Heavy duty cases are designed to protect from drops and scratches.
A Standing case improves user experience, being specially recommended for multimedia, videos and audio. Folio case is a combination case and stand, and may include a keyboard (USB for OTG smartphones or bluetooth keyboard).
Skins and design covers can serve for protection and personalization. These are the result of the relatively “naked” designs produced by manufacturers such as Apple, where the metal and glass components of the device are exposed and vulnerable to damage. They are distinct from holsters, in allowing use of the device while in the case, but in many instances include a belt clip or other device giving it the functionality of a holster. They are made of hard plastic, rubber, or in the newer market adhesive-backed vinyl pieces. Vinyl skins can be ordered on many websites and come pre-cut to fit your cell phone or another electronic device. Vinyl material may be calendared or cast, with the latter being more expensive. Calendered vinyl is expected to only be used for short-mid duration (10 years) while cast vinyl is used on a more long term basis. Calendered vinyl also tends to shrink in the heat and can be shaped into any form (above 80 degrees Celsius) but might fade in direct sunlight.The today’s standard of calendered films is almost as good as the cast vinyl. Cast vinyl avoids most problems, but costs up to 250% more. 3M has manufactured a cast vinyl product that they call “Controltac”. This vinyl cover maintains a more glossy look and provides an air release channel that prevents bubbles during placement. The more popular is the cast vinyl because of the range of designs.
Customized phone cases use custom printing. Different companies have different methods of printing on cases, some utilize sublimation for printing on mobile phone cases, other methods include inkjet printed skins and Dye-Sublimation 3D printing methods.
Some phones have a replaceable cover. A release button on the cover lets it pop off to be replaced with the new cell cover. Phones that lack a replaceable cover can accept a slip on or snap on cover. These come in leather, vinyl, silicone, or hard plastic.
Anti-lost and selfies wireless device
Antilost keychain can easily locate a mobile phone through the GPS and Bluetooth low energy antennas of the smartphone. Once the user is out of range, both the cell phone and device will alert the user. It also can be used to take selfies.
Some smartphones feature SD card slots (usually the smaller Micro-SD variant). These, in combination with a compatible SD card, can be used to transfer files from one device to another, or simply to increase the storage capacity of the phone.
Additionally, many devices have USB On-The-Go and support USB storage, in most cases using either a special USB micro-B flash drive or an adapter for a standard USB port. Such adapters can also be used with various other USB devices, such as hardware mice and keyboards.
Chargers and external batteries
Cell phone chargers have gone through a diverse evolution that included cradles, plug-in cords and obscure connectors. However, more recent devices generally use micro-USB. (Apple devices still use proprietary cables, though the form-factor of their 30-pin plug used on older devices has shown up elsewhere.)
External batteries can be included in the case (power case). Also external batteries can include rubber suction.
Smart lenses are larger and more capable than the phone’s camera, having optical zoom and other features. They connect to the smartphone by Wi-Fi and an app. They are compatible with most smartphones. Smart flash can be used also for selfies.
Selfie sticks are used to take selfies.
HDMI and Projector
Micro USB to HDMI cables are used in smartphones with MHL.