This already discussed standard model have been managed to be broken down to even deeper classifications in present times.
And some would argue that they are indeed 5 temperaments, but not the four as most believe them to be.
And this has led to the temperament called the Supine. This temperament takes the neutral ground, of which it does not too deeply possess any one of the previously mentioned traits.
This possesses a balance of all the other temperaments.
Because of their neutral tendency, they seem to be yielding. However, they are not less motivated to action like a phlegmatic would be.
Some prefer to put this neutral level under the phlegmatic personality, ignoring what a Supine is, or can be.
Furthermore, there have sprung up over the past few decades, many other theories that are intended to explain personality or behavioral patterns of people even more to a deeper level.
These may not be popular like the use of temperaments to classify different behavioral patterns of people, but they however hold noteworthy impacts in explaining the varied and complex personalities we may have as different people.
A number of them we would be highlighting in this material, include the following:
1. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
2. The Big Five Inventory
3. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
This is also known as the MBTI. This type of description tries to group both the introvert and extrovert groups into: thinking or feeling; sensing or intuition; and, judging or perceiving.
It goes on further to explain these terms as functions, and manages to make 16 possible different temperaments out of it.
Each individual is sorted into a group, by a series of questions. Here are some key terms used in the classification:
Everything is the same, except that; introverts and extroverts are changed into introversion and extroversion here.
A system of 16 combinations are made; each having four set units.
ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ
ISTP ISFP INFP INTP
ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP
ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ
Here, an individual is placed in either of this categories, by going through an assessment process.
This is a very complex system to classify people, and it appears to be quite similar, to the basic and advanced system of temperament classification which is also 16.
Here, terms like dominant, auxiliary, tertiary, and inferior functions are used to explain patterns of human behavior. So that any individual would be able to figure out his personality, clearly knowing what his dominating behavior or inferior behavior may be.
This is a complex system of classifying human behaviors, and only a basic explanation can be covered in this material.
The Big Five Inventory
The Big Five Inventory, also known as the five-factor model, is another model developed over the past few decades, which uses descriptions like openness to experience, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness and neuroticism to describe the attitudes and behavioral patterns of people.
The five personality traits that are used to describe people are easily recognized with the acronym OCEAN.
With each aspect of personality, an individual takes on an assessment regarding the extent or degree he or she naturally acts out the personality. They are also known as factors for personality traits.
We shall give a brief description of each factor. But the reader must combine all these assumptions, taking into consideration the degree to which he or she bears the personality.
When consciously done, a good analysis can be fetched, and also, meaningful deductions can be arrived.
Openness to experience: Openness to experience concerns, the extent to which an individual would apply himself or herself to experiences. These includes; adventures, imagination, visualizations, and the like.
• What level do you use your imagination?
• Do you like reading, listening to music, or enjoy works of art?
Conscientiousness: This takes into consideration, the extent of carefulness an individual may have with regard to different spheres of life.
• Are you carefree or careful, with regards to most activities you embark in life?
• Do you normally take lightly or seriously, works or projects you have to carry out?
• Are you punctual?
Extraversion: This declares the tendency to which an individual would behave outgoing, or probably behave reserved. The person who enjoys being in the company of others, or desiring to be the center of attention would have a very high level of extraversion. The otherwise would be for someone who possesses a very low level of extraversion.
• Are you the reserved type or easy-going type?
• How sociable would you judge yourself to be?
Agreeableness: This has to do with the extent to which an individual would appear friendly or easygoing with others.
• Are you easily irritated towards others?
• How likely would you demonstrate hospitality towards strangers?
Having a trait where you can manage to cope with people, or deal harmoniously with regard to events shows high agreeable traits. Being otherwise, shows very low level of agreeableness.
Neuroticism: How well an individual gets to be emotionally balanced determines the degree of neuroticism he or she possesses.
• Are you impulsive?
• Are you more of the time demonstrating anxiety?
• Do you fall vulnerable to depression, or have a low self-esteem?
All these traits are combined to determine the nature of people. A person who would score moderately on these specific attributes is likely to be very stable or adaptable. However, inclining more or less to a particular factor, denotes a much clearer way to position an individual within a behavioral category.
Eysenck Personality Questionnaire
The Eysenck personality questionnaire uses a questionnaire-approach to understand the temperaments of people.
Questions are asked and the candidate would have to give a yes/no response. By doing this, the category of an individual’s temperament would be classified.
It speaks of stable introverts(phlegmatic), unstable introverts(melancholic), stable extroverts(sanguine), and unstable extroverts(choleric).
It uses terms like extroversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism to classify human temperaments.
Extroversion: This is the degree of sociability a person may have. Is a person outgoing, outspoken or open wherever he finds himself?
A person who demonstrates reserved attitudes of extroversion demonstrates introversion, and a person who demonstrates a midrange level demonstrates ambiversion.
Neuroticism: This is characterized by the attitudes of emotional unbalances like: anxiety, depression and worry. A person who is neurotic would likely not be able to manage his emotions. Such a person is prone to fear and irascibility.
The reserved person demonstrates stability, and likely to work under pressure without any problems.
Psychoticism: This is the last characteristic used for the classification of temperaments. Psychoticism has to do with behaviors of aggression, masculine nature, and assertiveness.
It can be is explained as a person who has high levels of testosterone.
People who have low-levels of psychoticism in them demonstrates socialization.
There are countless models that can be used to explain human behavior or temperament, and even, some of the highlighted models have been revised by other personality experts.
To get a deeper level of understanding behavioral patterns, further researches can be done outside this material.
Nonetheless, the article seeks to propound only a basic insight regarding the study of personality and temperament types we have.
WIth all that has been discussed, we would draw down the curtains by providing a concluding section; where we shall land our discussions in the material.